Gender Is A Social Construct: Theory In Feminism And Sociology
Sociology and feminist theory, The Social Construction of Gender, focuses on the interaction of gender and social differences. This view states that culture and society create gender roles. These roles are then deemed appropriate or ideal behavior for someone of the particular sex.
Gender is a more pressing issue in today’s society. Gender is an issue that we all deal with in our daily lives. Inequality is made possible by gender. Gender construction begins with the assignment of a sex class based upon what a child’s genitalia looks like after birth. The use of gender markers such as dress, naming and dress can make a sex category a gender status. Gender is a dynamic process. There is scope for individual and small group modification, as well as institutionalized change. We expect that gender statuses will reflect the gender of the person. As such, it is harder for women to attain the highest levels in many professions. It is well-known that women cannot rise to higher positions in the workplace as fast as men. Women are often considered to be lower than men. Gender inequality is influenced by the social construct of gender at work. Analyzing the gender distribution in the workplace reveals the interconnected mechanisms that influence the relationship between work pay and gender status. A battery of work-strategy variables was used to determine significant gender differences. Studies also indicated that women had significantly greater authority and control of their resources than men. These sex-related differences in resource control and job power are significant sources of income inequality for women. In 2003, the employment rate in Ireland for women aged 15 to 64 was 55.3%. This was slightly higher than the EU 25 average 55%. In Ireland, the unemployment rate for men was 77% in 2003. This was far higher than that of the EU 25, which is 70.8%. The increase in women’s employment rates can be seen if we look at the 2016 figures. In 2016, 59.5% were employed by women, while 69.6% were employed by men. This shows that men will always have a better chance of being ahead of the rest of society when we look at gender. Gender is not synonymous with sex. As a social construction, gender doesn’t flow automatically from genitalia, reproductive organs and the social structure that makes them different. Social status is built from physiological differences such as gender, race, skin color, and height. The devalued genders are less powerful, more respected, and have fewer economic incentives than those who are valued. There will always remain segregation of the work force between men/women, regardless of how it is done. However, women’s work tends to be paid less than that of men, even if they are doing the same work. Lorber, J. (1994). Gender is a factor in parenting, with different expectations of fathers and mothers. Mothers have traditionally been expected to care for the children and cook. The husband/father would bring in the funds to the household. He would work long hours and come home to a clean house, a cooked dinner from his wife. Although this is the traditional way of doing things, it will continue to be what society expects from women. However, fathers today are more involved in housework and caring for their children. Men and women now have the same educations. They also work the same jobs. Children are either sent into a creche/playschool, or to a childminder. It is difficult for many to accept the changing gender roles of today’s society. But this is the way the future looks. People are standing up for women’s rights. They are now empowered to speak out and will not be intimidated by others. Religion, science, religion and all other values of society allow gendering to take place and are valid. The parents make their newborn’s world gendered by naming them, putting up birth announcements, and choosing a dress. The relationships of children with different gendered caregivers will influence their self-identifications as well as personalities. Children develop cognitive skills and learn how to behave in a way that is appropriate for their gender. Gender is created by humans in almost all interactions. They respond in the way they are taught to be gendered, and sometimes resist or rebel against the norms. Although rebellion and resistance have changed gender norms in the modern world, they rarely have been granted these statuses. It doesn’t really matter what men do or women do. Gender’s social institution places emphasis on what each person does as unique. Gender inequalities in sport are an ever-growing problem. Gender inequality in sport is the main issue. The Olympic Games were first held for women 118 years ago. All over the globe, women are being honored for their extraordinary achievements. This is a reminder that gender equality in sport has not been solved. The Ethics Centre of Finnish Sport looked into discrimination in hockey and football. They found that many female players felt trivialized and treated differently because of their sexual orientation. 70% of all sports offer equal amounts of prize money for women and men. 2 million men and women participate in sport every week. Only 0.4% goes to women’s sports. This means that 96% goes to men’s sports. For every dollar that college coaches earn from men’s sports, 63 cents are paid to women’s coach. It is well-known that in order to excel as a sportsman, you must have courage, determination, discipline, dedication and technical skills. This alone shows that men don’t have an advantage in sports. Steven Pinker is a Harvard psychologist who says “some categories really can be social constructions. They only exist because people tacitly accept to act as they exist… Examples include Money, Citizenship, Tenure, Citizenship, Decorations for Bravery, and the Presidency of the United Stated. According to West & Zimmerman, gender is not an individual trait. Instead, it is an emergent feature that is a result of various social arrangements. Also, as a legitimizing mechanism for one of the most fundamental divisions in society, it is a “both an outcome of and justification for many social arrangements” (West & Zimmerman 1977, P.126). Again, according to Zimmerman and West gender is more than what one is. It’s what you do in social interactions. “Doing” gender does not mean conforming to stereotype gender roles. It is about actively engaging in gendered behaviours or behaviours that could be considered gendered. Socialization is most prevalent in the teens. This is the period when one’s ability and gender performance are judged. Teens are influenced largely by social media bloggers and influencers. They believe they are expected to behave like these people. If they don’t, then they won’t be accepted by society. The impact of social media on society today is immense. Many people use Social Media to break social norms. What does this all mean for the future? Is social construct gender going to lead to more inequality or create more equality? Social constructs on gender and sexuality are real and exist, in my view. People stereotype every day. The evidence and points made above show that gendered inequalities must be addressed globally. We need to do more to solve them. These are: To draw attention to gender and gender relations in academia and how they relate to feminism and to examine the inequality in the workplace. Our journey to social justice is impeded by inequality. We need to change this to get it under control. Sociologists Thomas Luckmann and Peter L. Berger first introduced the theory of social construction in 1966. Their theory posits that all meanings are socially constructed and moulded in order to create social constructs. These social constructs seem almost natural as they become part of our daily lives. These social constructs are not reality, but they are created by a specific society. Although the term “social construction” can be difficult to define, it covers many elements. But, social construction shows how society constructs expectations and sets certain standards in sociological areas such as gender or sex. While social action is a powerful influence on a biological individual’s biology, it also has an impact on their perception of gender. According to World Health Organisation, gender is defined as the socially constructed traits of men and woman that includes roles, norms, and relationships. We are taught the appropriate behaviours and norms to interact with others of the same gender, regardless of whether we were born male or female. These roles are constructed to exclude individuals who are not compatible with them. Gender is so ingrained in our daily lives that we don’t question it. It is so common that we take it for granted. However, gender is fluid. It’s constantly created from social interactions, social lives and relationships. The biological traits of sex are used by society to define roles and gender roles. They are based on chromosomes or genitalia as well other physical characteristics. Society tends to focus on gender and the difference between males & females. Gender identities, like other social identities, are shaped by two sets or determinants: male and female. Western societies have a dominant masculinity that overpowers feminists. This is because heterosexual white men are abled-bodied, educated, and well-educated, and their gender represents hegemonic masculinity. The masculinity we know is a blueprint for what men should do. The example of white heterosexual male roles is an example of this hegemonic ideal. Susan Farrel and Professor Judith Lorber argue that feministic views have been influenced by patriarchal ideas, and that femininity is set up to be less important than masculinity. This gender power gap results from masculine dominance. Hegemonic masculinity doesn’t have a rival or competitor like hegemonic feminine power. However, dominant females still favour “white heterosexual, middle class cis-women who can be bodied” and are open to accepting “hegemonic masculinity”. These societies are not favourable for minority women. Caster Semenya, the South African Olympic Champion’s story revolves around the attempts of governing agencies to create a distinction between elite or competitive athletes. These efforts focus mainly on athletes, particularly black women, who don’t fit the established standards of femininity. Caster Semenya has always been a subject of gender scrutiny, despite identifying as a woman. Caster’s sex has been the subject of constant speculation by the media, the public, as well as fellow athletes. Caster’s life reminds us of gender as a construct by other humans. Those who challenge these constructs are a subject for discussion and study. Indirect methods, such as observation and fieldwork, can be used to examine how people “do gender. Personal interviews are the best way to find out how people perceive gender. To measure gender, the Labour Force Gender Index was developed. This algorithm uses four areas of numerical values: responsibility for children (occupation segregation), hours worked and education level. LFGI scores are 0-10. Lower scores indicate more feminine roles. This means that gender is socially constructed. Gender is fluid and constantly changing across cultures, unlike sex. In western societies, heterosexual males are most often the ones who create gender. Caster Semenya is a worldwide phenomenon that discusses and studies those who challenge these constructs.